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By Arnold Hughes

A Political background of the Gambia: 1816-1994 is the 1st entire account of the political historical past of the previous British West African dependency to be written. It uses a lot hitherto unconsulted or unavailable British and Gambian legit and personal documentary assets, in addition to interviews with many Gambian politicians and previous British colonial officers. the 1st a part of the ebook charts the origins and features of contemporary politics in colonial Bathurst (Banjul) and its growth into the Gambian inside (Protectorate) within the 20 years after international struggle II. via independence in 1965, older urban-based events within the capital have been defeated by means of a brand new, rural-based political corporation, the People's innovative get together (PPP). the second one a part of the publication analyzes the capacity in which the PPP, lower than President Sir Dawda Jawara, succeeded in defeating either present and new rival political events and an tried coup in 1981. The e-book closes with an evidence of the death of the PPP by the hands of a military coup in 1994. The publication not just establishes these designated points of Gambian political heritage, but in addition relates those to the broader nearby and African context, through the colonial and independence sessions.

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35 as soon as some great benefits of the Ibo society were established, Yoruba Recaptives swimsuit and validated their very own societies (as they'd in Freetown); round 1850, a Protestant Wolof shipwright named Senegal Fye validated a “Shipwrights’ Society,” which catered for carpenters and masons, in addition to shipwrights. The important functionality of such a lot societies looks to were to make sure that their individuals may perhaps manage to pay for their burial expenditures. The headmen additionally exercised a level of social regulate over the individuals. 36 Governor MacDonnell left place of work in 1852 with an greater acceptance. He remained well-liked by the British retailers simply because he followed an competitive coverage to guard their advertisement pursuits opposed to the predatory activities of opposed tribes. He was once, for instance, publicly thanked by means of the retailers for major a winning excursion opposed to the folk of Kunnong and Bambako who were attacking buying and selling posts. He was once additionally the 1st administrator due to the fact that Findlay to take decisive motion opposed to the French investors at Albreda. In 1848, he enforced a blockade to avoid smuggling; to that end, exchange from Albreda used to be decreased through 1 / 4 by way of 1852. 37 MacDonnell used to be, although, less well-liked by 62 retailers and Recaptives Liberated Africans. Beside forsaking the Malfa Lock venture and failing to take sufficient measures to avoid the floods of 1849, he additionally brought a charges Ordinance of three to four percentage each year on estate in 1850. even supposing retailers and Africans alike have been required to pay this tax, in relative phrases the weight used to be a lot larger at the latter. no longer strangely, Liberated Africans condemned the ordinance ahead of its creation. 38 As indicated, they have been additionally to name for its repeal in 1862. Governor O’Connor: The promoting of Liberated African pursuits while MacDonnell’s detailed successor, A. E. (later Sir Arthur) Kennedy, was once promoted to the put up of governor of Sierra Leone with out ever having set foot in Bathurst, the placement was once provided to Colonel L. S. O’Connor of the 1st West India Regiment. 39 firstly, O’Connor the regulations of his predecessor and British retailers persevered to workout loads of impact. certainly, in 1853, he appointed Thomas Brown to the administrative Council. forty The mercantile participants have been both potent at the Legislative Council and it used to be their strain that persuaded O’Connor (who had formerly declared that he meant to stay impartial) to intrude within the civil battle within the Kombo. forty-one via the mid-nineteenth century, the Mandinka have been divided into teams, the Soninkes and the Marabouts. the previous have been animists, or Muslims who did not become aware of Islamic practices, such a lot particularly via eating alcohol; in perform, they consisted of the rulers and aristocracies of the kingdoms and their fans. The latter, individuals of the Tijani Islamic confraternity, have been usually investors and clerics and strictly kept away from alcohol. They have been excluded from land possession and places of work of kingdom in all Mandinka states; also, Marabouts have been frequently given the poorest land by way of the Soninke rulers and have been seriously taxed.

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