By Don Nardo
Mesopotamia, the "land among the rivers," was once the location of the world's first precise towns, empires, large-scale engineering initiatives, and written literature. The heritage, tradition, and contributions of the pivotal civilizations that inhabited the realm are awarded in shiny aspect during this quantity, together with the increase and fall of Sumeria, Babylonia, Assyria, and Persia.
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Extra info for Ancient Mesopotamia (Greenhaven Encylopedia)
The sons of Babylon . . . their clientship I validated anew. Esarhaddon additionally concluded a treaty with the Medes, with whom the Assyrians have been at odds for a while. those excerpts from the treaty have been found within the ruins of Kalhu (Nimrud): this is often the treaty that Esarhaddon, king of the area, king of Assyria, son of Sennacherib . . . concludes with Ramataia, prince of town of Urakazabarna [in Media], along with his sons, his grandsons, with all of the humans of [his] realm. . . . within the presence of the [gods] Ashur, An, Enlil, Ea, [and] Sin. . . . Assurbanipal, the [Assyrian] crown prince, son of your lord Esarhaddon . . . will workout the kingship and The Greenhaven Encyclopedia of old Mesopotamia Etana sovereignty of Assyria over you [when I die]. You shall shield him on the town and nation. You shall struggle and die for him. . . . You swear that you simply shall no longer be adversarial to him.. . . You swear that you're going to no longer modify this treaty, that you'll no longer consign it to the hearth, or solid it into the water. . . . in the event you achieve this . . . enable [the god] Sin . . . make investments you with leprosy. no longer all of Esarhaddon’s ambitions have been as positive as development initiatives and treaties, in spite of the fact that. He confirmed that he used to be prepared and ready to hire an analogous competitive overseas coverage and vicious army tools because the Assyrian monarchs who had preceded him. while the Phoenician urban of Sidon rebelled opposed to his rule, for instance, he beaten the riot, beheaded the city’s ruler, destroyed the entire constructions, and deported the surviving population to Assyria. Esarhaddon additionally introduced invasions of Egypt, in 674 and 671 B. C. The Egyptians controlled to maintain the Assyrians kind of at bay within the first assault yet they lacked the army assets to forestall Esarhaddon’s moment and larger offensive. He subdued the capital, Memphis, and lots of the nation-state, surrounding it in lower than a month. nonetheless, the proud and obdurate Egyptians persevered to withstand; purely years after the most Assyrian military left the rustic, they staged a wide insurrection. Esarhaddon was once on his as far back as positioned down this insurrection while he died without notice. His son, Ashurbanipal, succeeded him on Assyria’s throne. SEE additionally: Ashurbanipal; Egypt; Sennacherib Eshnunna a massive Mesopotamian urban located at the Diyala River, a tributary of the Tigris, approximately 50 miles (80km) northeast of The Greenhaven Encyclopedia of historic Mesopotamia sleek Baghdad. Eshnunna (modern inform Asmar) was once inhabited through Sumerians as early because the fourth millennium B. C. Its interval of maximum prosperity and impact, even though, used to be among approximately 2000 and 1800 B. C. , whilst it used to be the capital of a small, self sufficient country referred to as Warum. Eshnunna finally fell to the armies of the Babylonian king Hammurabi in approximately 1763 B. C. Many revealing archaeological discoveries were made on the website of Eshnunna. The primary excavations came about within the Nineteen Thirties, backed by way of Chicago’s Oriental Institute and led via excavator Henri Frankfort. The diggers exposed a temple that could have venerated Abu, a crops god.