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The Greek rhetorician Dionysius of Halicarnassus used to be energetic in Augustan Rome. for a very long time, sleek students have appeared him as a slightly mediocre critic, whose works have been basically fascinating as a result of the references to prior students and the citations of literary fragments. via studying Dionysius perspectives in the context of his rhetorical programme, this publication indicates that Dionysius was once in truth an clever student, who mixed theories and techniques from a number of language disciplines and used them for his personal sensible reasons. His rhetorical writings not just tell us concerning the linguistic wisdom of intellectuals on the finish of the 1st century BC, but additionally display the shut connections among philology, technical grammar, philosophy, track reports and rhetoric."

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15: Ο το το δ φημι, τι ο χ κα ξ ντωνυμ ας α τοτ λεια συν σταται, που φαμ ν ο τως, γ περιπατ , σ περιπατε ς. τ τε γ ρ συν σταται ντωνυμ α κα δυν μει π λιν α τ α τοτ λεια, ταν ντ’ ν ματος παραληφ σ νταξις . ‘I am now not the following claiming that you just can't have an entire sentence with a pronoun ( ντωνυμ α), corresponding to “I’m jogging, you’re walking”. For then, too, completeness is accomplished, whilst a pronoun ( ντωνυμ α) is utilized in position of a noun ( ντ ν ματος) which provides almost a similar building (σ νταξις). ’ (Translation tailored from Householder. ) Cf. [D. Thrax], G. G. I 1, 63,1: ντωνυμ α στ λ ξις ντ ν ματος παραλαμβανομ νη. ‘A pronoun is a observe that's used as an alternative for a noun. ’ 19 The pronoun doesn't in basic terms substitute the noun, however it used to be, in accordance with Apollonius Dyscolus (Synt. I. 19), even invented for the sake of the development of verbs within the first and moment individual. Nouns regularly check with 3rd people, and since verbs also are utilized in the first and moment individual, the pronoun was once ‘invented’. even if Apollonius Dyscolus discusses the discovery of the pronouns themselves and never the discovery of 174 bankruptcy 4 into consideration, we will clarify why Dionysius thinks that the pronouns have been separated from the nouns (and no longer, as smooth students imagine, from the ρ ρον). Dionysius’ suggestion is most likely that phrases resembling ο τος (‘this one’) have been initially classified as nouns ( ν ματα), simply because they changed nouns within the building of a sentence. 20 In later instances this kind of phrases might have bought the identify ντονομασ αι (or ντωνυμ αι), that's ‘instead of-nouns’. (4) an extra difference among Dionysius and different historians of grammar issues the view that the participle (μετοχ ) used to be separated from the appellative (προσηγορικ ν). in keeping with such a lot students, the participles initially belonged to the verbs ( ματα) sooner than they have been handled as a separate team. 21 which will clarify Dionysius’ different opinion, it truly is back invaluable take into consideration the traditional grammatical conception in this a part of speech. The participle (μετοχ ) owed its identify to the truth that it ‘participated’ within the morphological and syntactical traits of 2 different be aware periods, specifically verb and noun. Apollonius Dyscolus explains in his Syntax that participles have been invented simply because clients of language wanted verbs with instances and genders, so they may well convey congruence (καταλληλ της). 22 hence, the participle is derived from a verb, yet, like a noun, it has case, quantity and gender. after we keep in mind that in old grammar the participle was once thought of a type of intermediate shape among noun and verb, it's going to no longer shock us that Dionysius means that the participle used to be separated from the appellative, and never from the verb. we must always continue the time period ντωνυμ α, it's possible that Dionysius’ concept at the separation of the note category ‘pronoun’ from the observe classification ‘noun’ is predicated at the similar concept. 20 I supply the instance of ο τος simply because Dionysius classifies τουτον as an ντωνυμ α in Comp. 6. 29,20. I emphasise that Dionysius doesn't provide the argument on pronouns exchanging nouns: this is often my reconstruction of his reasoning, at the foundation of Apollonius Dyscolus’ arguments.

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