By Scott E. Page
This publication presents an advent to the function of variety in complicated adaptive structures. a posh system--such as an financial system or a tropical ecosystem--consists of interacting adaptive entities that produce dynamic styles and constructions. variety performs a distinct position in a fancy method than it does in an equilibrium method, the place it frequently purely produces version round the suggest for functionality measures. In complicated adaptive platforms, range makes basic contributions to procedure performance.
Scott web page provides a concise primer on how range occurs, the way it is maintained, and the way it impacts complicated structures. He explains how range underpins method point robustness, taking into account a number of responses to exterior shocks and inner diversifications; the way it presents the seeds for giant occasions by way of growing outliers that gas tipping issues; and the way it drives novelty and innovation. web page seems to be on the other forms of diversity--variations inside of and throughout kinds, and particular group compositions and interplay structures--and covers the evolution of variety inside of complicated platforms and the criteria that be sure the quantity of maintained range inside of a system.
- Provides a concise and obtainable creation
- Shows how variety underpins robustness and fuels tipping issues
- Covers every kind of range
- The crucial primer on range in complicated adaptive systems
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Extra info for Diversity and Complexity (Primers in Complex Systems)
30 Huxley, Julian, 148 thought or meme platforms: context of, 125–26 examples, as a resource of, eighty heuristics in challenge fixing, 218–20 immune approach version, 204–10, 223–24 independence assumption, 173 informational platforms, redundancy and robustness of, 236–40 info compression, 55–56 interdependence: advanced platforms, as an characteristic of, 12, 25, 38 constraints on variety and, 138–39 variety throughout structures and, 120–21 emergent constructions produced by way of, complexity within the online game of lifestyles and, forty three predicting from advanced platforms, influence on, 7 interdisciplinary technique, 2–3, 249–50 meantime viability, 124 intermediate disturbance speculation, thirteen, 110–12, 115–18 web, the, 234–36, 252 inversion, 87 Kauffman, Stuart, 106 Kay, James, fifty two Keitt, Tim, 138 Kelvin, Lord. See Thomson, William, 1st Baron Kelvin of Largs Kepler, Johannes, 1 Kirman, Alan, 18 Knerr, Richard, 271n. 23 Kolmogorov complexity, 29 Krakauer, David, eighty three ladder of technology, 26 landscapes: versions of and the reasons of range, 93–95 choice and, 98–100 synergy from a number of, 220–23 legislations of considered necessary kind, 210–12 studying through doing, 200–2 Levin, Simon, fifty two, 103 hyperlink, Karl P. , 126 Lloyd, Seth, 24, 30 logical intensity, 30 MacArthur, R. H. , 50 Malcolm, Janet, four March, James G. , 87 might, Robert M. , 36, 38–40, forty two, 51–52 Mayr, Ernst, sixty one, a hundred McShea, Daniel, eighty one measuring complexity: description size, techniques in response to, 27–30 trouble of producing the series, techniques in keeping with, 30–31 statistical complexity as an method of, 31 measuring range: characteristic measures, fifty nine, 73–76 disjoint inhabitants measures, 59–60, 76–77 distance measures, 58–59, 70–73 range measures, observations approximately, 55–56 entropy measures, 57–58, 66–70 measures and valuations of range, contrast among, 74–75 notation used, 63–64 in perform, 77–78 proportions, assumption concerning, sixty four different types of measures, 54–60 edition measures, 56–57, 64–66 measuring results of range in complicated structures: meeting of advanced structures and (see meeting of advanced structures) formal measures of range and, 77–78. See additionally complicated structures, diversity’s influence in mechanisms for generating edition. See version, mechanisms for generating Melin, Arthur, 271n. 23 Meltzer, David J. , 276n. fifty nine meme structures. See proposal or meme platforms method: averaging (see averaging) complexity, difficulties posed by way of, eight measuring complexity (see measuring complexity) measuring range (see measuring variety measuring results of range in complicated structures) types, use of, 12–13, 112–18, 248 a number of motives, challenge of, forty six pattern definition, challenge of, 47–48 choice (squared) bias, 48–49 statistical and quantile regressions, 3–4 taxonomies and typologies, contrast among, 60–61 varieties, definition of, 60–63 Miller, Nicholas, 247 Mitchell, Melanie, 31 modularity, 24, 240–41 Montaigne, Michel de, 196 mosaic evolution, 139 a number of explanations, challenge of, forty six mutation: impartial, 92–93, ninety seven version, as a mechanism for generating, 84–87, ninety seven networks: the meeting technique and, 252 advanced structures, as a middle characteristic of, eleven, 17, 25, 38 persistent legislation, 234–35 in a Prisoner’s quandary online game, 38–40 neutrality, aid of results of genotypic edition on phenotypes via, eighty three impartial mutations, 92–93 impartial conception types, a hundred thirty five.