Download E-books The Age of Voltaire: A History of Civilization in Western Europe from 1715 to 1756, with Special Emphasis on the Conflict between Religion and Philosophy (The Story of Civilization IX) PDF

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By Will Durant

The Age of Voltaire, the 9th quantity of the tale of Civilization, is an in-depth exam of France and England within the first 1/2 the eighteenth century. during this masterful paintings, listeners will come upon the English rules that encouraged the Enlightenment in France; the salons of Paris, the place the wits and thinkers of all Europe accumulated to switch principles; the philosophes-- intellectuals and artists who consulted with kings and queens; Voltaire himself, the incarnation of the Enlightenment; Mme. Pompadour, who seduced Louis XV and during him prompted French coverage; the Augustan Age in English literature; and the becoming parasitism of the aristocracy and emerging energy of the economic classification.

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King George I turned its governor and each attempt was once made to unfold the idea that its monopoly constitution promised excessive gains. the obvious luck of Law’s “System” in modern France contaminated England with the same fever of hypothesis. inside six days of the company’s provide to just accept executive notes in check for stocks, thirds of the noteholders approved the inspiration. Many others received stocks, which in a month rose from £77 to £123. five (1719). to make sure endured governmental co-operation, the corporate administrators voted huge presents of inventory to individuals of the ministry, and to 2 mistresses of the King. 28 Robert Walpole, no longer but minister, warned the home of Commons opposed to the scheme as “pernicious … stockjobbing”; the venture, he stated, was once “to bring up artificially the worth of the inventory, by means of fascinating and maintaining a basic infatuation, and through promising dividends out of cash which might no longer be enough to the aim. ” He estimated, with extraordinary accuracy, that the undertaking may fail, and that if it have been allowed to contain most people its failure could entail a common and unsafe discontent. 29 He argued that at the very least a few restrict will be put upon the increase of the company’s inventory. the home refused to heed his caution. On April 7, 1720, either homes of Parliament licensed the proposals of the corporate. On April 12 the corporate issued new inventory at £ three hundred a percentage; this used to be subscribed for straight away. On April 21, flush with the government’s fee of curiosity at the govt notes now held by means of the corporate, it introduced that it should pay a summer time dividend of ten according to cent. It took good thing about the keenness aroused via this declaration to drift one more factor of stocks at £400 (April 23); this used to be taken up in a number of hours. the push to buy stocks raised their rate to £550 on could 28, and to £890 on June 2; in July a brand new factor used to be bought at £ 1,000 a proportion. the total trendy international got here to subscribe: dukes, priests, politicians, musicians, poets; trade Alley turned the scene of such excited pageant in paying for as will be came upon basically within the Rue Quincampoix in Paris at nearly an analogous time; the character of guy printed itself throughout frontiers. stocks have been bargained for in taverns, coffeehouses, and milliners’ outlets; each one evening women and men calculated how wealthy that they had develop into, and what kind of richer they may be in the event that they had obtained quicker or extra. Public cash used to be so longing for hypothesis that eighty-six minor concerns have been floated. inventory used to be bought in businesses shaped to transmute metals into silver, to erect hospitals for bastard young children, to extract oil from radishes, to create perpetual movement, to import jackasses from Spain. One promoter introduced “a corporation for sporting on an project of serious virtue, yet not anyone to understand what it truly is” until eventually later; he acquired 1000 subscriptions of £ 2 each one through noon, and disappeared within the afternoon. 30 The excesses of those smaller “bubbles” (for so the time known as them) all started the response opposed to the South Sea company.

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