By LeeAnna Keith
On Easter Sunday, 1873, within the tiny hamlet of Colfax, Louisiana, greater than a hundred and fifty contributors of an all-black Republican military, protecting the town's courthouse, have been slain by way of an armed strength of rampaging white supremacists. the main lethal incident of racial violence of the Reconstruction period, the Colfax bloodbath unleashed a reign of terror that every one yet extinguished the crusade for racial equality.
LeeAnna Keith's The Colfax Massacre is the 1st full-length booklet to inform the heritage of this decisive occasion. Drawing on a major physique of records, together with eyewitness debts of the bloodbath, in addition to newly found facts from the positioning itself, Keith explores the racial tensions that resulted in the fateful stumble upon, in which surrendering blacks have been mercilessly slaughtered, and the reverberations this message of terror despatched in the course of the South. Keith additionally recounts the heroic makes an attempt by way of U.S. lawyer J.R. Beckwith to deliver the killers to justice and the various criminal matters raised through the bloodbath. In 1875, pushing aside the poignant testimony of three hundred witnesses, the splendid courtroom governed unanimously in U.S. v. Cruikshank to overturn a reduce court docket conviction of 8 conspirators. This determination almost nullified the Ku Klux Klan Enforcement Acts of 1870 and 1871--which had made federal offenses of a number of acts to intimidate citizens and officeholders--and cleared the best way for the Jim Crow era.
If there has been a unmarried ancient second that successfully killed Reconstruction and erased the profits blacks had made because the civil conflict, it used to be the day of the Colfax bloodbath. LeeAnna Keith provides readers either a gripping narrative account of that portentous day and a nuanced historic research of its far-reaching repercussions.
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Extra info for The Colfax Massacre: The Untold Story of Black Power, White Terror, and the Death of Reconstruction
Rohr, Alabama Schoolgirl, one hundred and five, a hundred and fifty five, one hundred seventy. eight. Olmsted, Cotton country, 456–457 (see chap. 2, n. 13). nine. “Passengers Sailed,” ny occasions, July 21, 1859, eight. 10. Rohr, Alabama Schoolgirl¸ 221. eleven. “History of Colfax hotel No. 259,” Carnahan assortment, Folder four, CGH (see chap. 1, n. 4). 12. John D. Winters, The Civil battle in Louisiana (Baton Rouge: Louisiana kingdom collage Press, 1963), eighty three, 164–165. thirteen. Sue Eakin, Rapides Parish background (Alexandria: historic organization of important Louisiana, 1976), Reprinted on RootsWeb. com, http://www. rootsweb. com/~larapide/history/eakin/index. htm. 14. “American Civil warfare normal Oﬃcers checklist: Leroy Augustus Staﬀord” [database on-line at Ancestry. com]; Clement A. Evans, ed. , accomplice army historical past XII (Wilmington: Broadfoot, 1987), 317. notes to pages 37–41 S 181 15. Winters, Civil warfare in Louisiana, 35; Milton Dunn notes, Melrose Scrapbook No. sixty seven, CGH (see intro. , n. 2). sixteen. 1860 usa Federal Census [database on-line at Ancestry. com], M653–423, 445, NARA; sales space, Louisiana accomplice Soldier, II:725. 17. 1860 usa Federal Census [database on-line at Ancestry. com], M653–423, 109, 118, NARA; Andrew B. sales space, files of Louisiana accomplice infantrymen and Louisiana accomplice instructions (Spartanburg, SC: Reprint Co. , 1984), 1:545, 3:102. 18. G. P. Whittington, “Rapides Parish—A heritage [Part IV],” Louisiana historic Quarterly 17 (October 1934), 744. 19. sales space, Louisiana accomplice squaddies, II:1253; Milton Dunn, “Christopher Columbus Nash, A Tribute,” (Colfax, los angeles. : Colfax Chronicle, n. d. ), four; James M. McPherson, conflict Cry of Freedom: The Civil warfare period (New York: Ballantine Books, 1988), 460, 527–532, 640–642. 20. Ted Tunnell, Crucible of Reconstruction:War, Radicalism, and Race in Louisiana, 1862–1877 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana country college Press, 1984), 23. 21. nationwide Cemetery management. U. S. Veterans Cemeteries, ca. 1800– 2004 [database online]. Provo, Utah: MyFamily. com, Inc. , 2005. unique info: nationwide Cemetery management. national Gravesite Locator. 22. Staﬀord, Wells kin, 106 (see chap. 2, n. 17). 23. Walter McGeehee Lowrey, “The Political occupation of James Madison Wells,” Louisiana old Quarterly 31 (October 1948), 1008–1009. 24. For an instance of the masthead, see purple River Republican, January 30, 1847. See additionally Testimony of J. M. Wells in “United States Election Committee, Fourth District of Louisiana, J. P. Newsham v. Michael Ryan, assertion of Ryan with short ” [pamphlet reprint, n. p. , n. d. ], certain Pamphlet quantity, big apple Public Library Pamphlet assortment (NYPL), eleven. 25. Mary Calhoun to Meredith Calhoun, January 28, 1861, Hemphill assortment; Mary Ann Cruse letter, April three, 1861 [notes on archival examine at Duke collage via writer Nancy M. Rohr], Huntsville Public Library, Huntsville, AL. 26. Receipts of revenues of Public Lands, division of the internal, Hemphill assortment. 27. Huntsville Democrat, September eleven, 1861; Passenger Lists of Vessels Arriving at manhattan, 1820–1897 [database on-line at Ancestry. com], Micropublication M237, Rolls 95–580, NARA.