Download E-books The Secret War in Afghanistan: The Soviet Union, China and Anglo-American Intelligence in the Afghan War (Library of Middle East History) PDF

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By Panagiotis Dimitrakis

The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, and the next battle with the indigenous Afghan Mujahedeen, was once one of many bloodiest conflicts of the chilly warfare. Key info of the situations surrounding the invasion and its final end in simple terms months sooner than the autumn of the Berlin Wall in November 1989 have lengthy remained uncertain; the whole episode is a shadowy narrative of clandestine correspondence, covert operations and failed intelligence. employing lately declassified records, the key warfare in Afghanistan brings to gentle the complete function of the CIA in arming and coaching the Afghan warring parties. right here, Panagiotis Dimitrakis analyses each element of this important turning element in chilly warfare heritage; from President Jimmy Carter's 'Afghan seize' to Margaret Thatcher's function within the problem. Dimitrakis additionally outlines the total quantity of China's involvement in arming the Mujahedeen, successfully scuffling with Brezhnev's Soviet Union by way of proxy. it will be crucial examining for students and scholars of the chilly struggle, American historical past and the trendy center East.

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I'm yes that they had been forewarned. ’152 Operations to put mines among Russian border posts have been coupled with one other operation in December 1986: 30 Mujahedeen crossed the border river close to Wakhan, in rubber boats, and attacked the protection posts of 2 hydroelectric strength stations in Tajikistan. On one other party the city of Pyandzh got here below rocket assault, including the small airfield nearby:153 those cross-border moves have been at their top in the course of 1986. rankings of assaults have been made around the Amu from Jozjan to Badakshan provinces … That we have been hitting a sore spot used to be proven by way of the ferocity of the Soviets’ response. almost each incursion provoked sizeable aerial bombing and gunship assaults on all villages south of the river within the neighborhood of our strike’. 154 The Soviet military had realised that they can do not anything to forestall the infiltration of the Mujahedeen from Pakistan, nor to dam their entry to weaponry. The operations planners have been turning out to be extra determined, to the level that during the important Committee consultation of thirteen November 1986 the then deputy minister of defence, box Marshal Akhromeev, Dimitrakis_Ch05. indd 181 6/6/2013 7:01:26 PM 182 the key warfare IN A FGHANISTAN proposed a deadly thought to Gromyko: ‘We needs to visit Pakistan’, he instructed, assuming that in basic terms an invasion may deal successfully with the difficulty handy. yet Gorbachev’s chairmanship ensured that any such plan of action – a huge Soviet escalation of the conflict – was once now not mentioned. a hundred and fifty five In April 1987, although, the ISI’s Afghan bureau did organise an additional escalation: the Mujahedeen, armed through the Pakistanis, introduced raids in the Soviet Union. It is still controversial to what volume the pinnacle of the bureau, Brigadier Yousaf, acted with out the categorical authorisation of the often very cautious Zia. the 1st crew attacked an airfield close to Termez in Uzbekistan with rockets (striking over a interval of ten days), the second one introduced highway ambushes opposed to Russian army convoys, and the 3rd used rockets to assault a manufacturing facility situated ten miles inside of Russian territory. At concerning the comparable time, the CIA (unaware of those Pakistani-supported operations) circulated satellite tv for pc pictures between best decision-makers in Washington that confirmed Muslim demonstrations in Alma-Ata (Almaty), the capital of Soviet primary Asia; this can have indicated fertile floor for the fomenting of issues in the USSR. 156 as soon as details at the Mujahedeen moves in the USSR have been disclosed, the executive of the CIA’s Directorate of Operations telephoned the station leader in Islamabad asking him if there have been any service provider involvement. (If the CIA had had any reference to those assaults, US legislation might were damaged – those activities having handed the authority of the CIA as outlined via presidential findings and nationwide protection coverage judgements. )157 The Soviets threatened Zia: this type of motion placed ‘the defense and integrity of Pakistan’ in nice possibility. This was once a blunt connection with invasion, and the Reagan management scrambled to reassure the Soviets that there has been no American involvement in it.

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