By Lourens Minnema
Can tragic perspectives of the human as recognized to Westerners via Greek and Shakespearean tragedy be pointed out open air ecu tradition, within the Indian tradition of Hindu epic drama? In what respects can the Mahabharata epic's and the Bhagavadgita's perspectives of the human be referred to as ‘tragic' within the Greek and Shakespearean senses of the word?
Tragic perspectives of the human situation are essentially embedded in tales. purely afterwards are those perspectives expounded in theories of tragedy and in philosophical anthropologies. Minnema identifies those embedded perspectives of human nature via discussing the ways that tragic tales elevate numerous anthropological issues—issues comparable to dealing with evil, pain, struggle, demise, values, energy, sacrifice, ritual, communique, gender, honour, injustice, wisdom, destiny, freedom.
Each bankruptcy represents one cluster of tragic matters which are explored by way of their specific (Greek, English, Indian) settings earlier than being in comparison cross-culturally. finally, the underlying query is: are Indian perspectives of the human very assorted from Western perspectives?
Read or Download Tragic Views of the Human Condition: Cross-Cultural Comparisons between Views of Human Nature in Greek and Shakespearean Tragedy and the Mahabharata and Bhagavadgita PDF
Best Mythology books
Newly up-to-date and extended with the author’s hottest text. A smooth masterpiece from the multiple-award-winning grasp of cutting edge fiction, Neil Gaiman. First released in 2001, American Gods turned an rapid vintage, lauded for its amazing synthesis of “mystery, satire, intercourse, horror, and poetic prose” (Washington publish) and as a contemporary phantasmagoria that “distills the essence of the US” (Seattle Post-Intelligencer).
In keeping with the legends utilized in Greek drama, Seneca's performs are outstanding for the exuberant ruthlessness with which disastrous occasions are foretold after which pursued to their tragic and infrequently bloodthirsty ends. Thyestes depicts the risk of an ancestral curse striking over feuding brothers, whereas Phaedra portrays a girl stricken by deadly ardour for her stepson.
First written down within the 8th century advert, those early Irish tales depict a much older world—part fable, half legend and half background. wealthy with magic and achingly attractive, they converse of a land of heroic battles, excessive love and warrior beliefs, within which the otherworld is explored and males mingle freely with the gods.
Written in Iceland a century after the shut of the Viking Age, The Prose Edda is the resource of such a lot of what we all know of Norse mythology. Its stories are peopled by way of giants, dwarves, and elves, superhuman heroes and indomitable warrior queens. Its gods dwell with the tragic wisdom in their personal forthcoming destruction within the cataclysmic conflict of Ragnarok.
Additional resources for Tragic Views of the Human Condition: Cross-Cultural Comparisons between Views of Human Nature in Greek and Shakespearean Tragedy and the Mahabharata and Bhagavadgita
The sorts of verbal exchange displayed in Hamlet exhibit a excessive measure of theatricality. Rhetorical graciousness defines social prestige, however it is unmasked as corrupt. Hamlet, regardless of the verbal virtuosity in his contests with a number of competitors, invalidates the court docket rhetoric. His dialogues are spied upon, overheard and stated, as though they have been played on level. The presence of an viewers is felt. Hamlet mirrors different folks’ methods of speaking with him and reverses the jobs of questioner and respondent. discussion itself turns into a subject. The presence of an viewers is felt even improved in the course of Hamlet’s internal dialogues with himself. Lee thought of them failed dialogues along with his presumed real self. Failed dialogues could be noticeable as commonly ‘tragic’. while epic heroes interact in riddle-solving dialogues, tragic heroes, corresponding to Oedipus and Antigone, have interaction in failed dialogues doomed to show dialogical companions into lonesome drifters. The tragic event lacks dialogical openness. half II: INDIAN AND HINDU matters 1 advent In historical and classical Indian and Hindu tradition, literary and dramatic genres have constructed that fluctuate from their Western opposite numbers. In what respects do those genres fluctuate? Have literary genres and dramatic genres built as separate different types in India? What are poetry’s particular temper results and viewers responses, in keeping with classical Indian aesthetics? and will the Mahābhārata epic be categorised as an ‘epic’ style? One aesthetician will change into the most important to answering those questions – Anandavardhana. additionally, dialogues play an immense position within the Mahābhārata epic as a complete – a job that might be mentioned afterward. during this bankruptcy, we will concentrate on one discussion specifically – the discussion among Arjuna and Krishna within the Bhagavadgītā. What does this particular discussion suggest to whom, and what's its corresponding viewers reaction? 2 The Mahābhārata’s particular literary style 2. 1 Hindu non secular category The outer body of the epic provides Vyāsa as its composer. Vyāsa is a brahmin seer and an incarnation of the deity Vishnu-Nārāyana, and as such, endowed with the priestly authority of a non secular instructor. regardless of that, the epic isn't as sacred a scripture because the Vedas and Upanishads, that are regarded as śruti, the ‘hearing’ of the inviolable observe, of the sacred revelation, of the everlasting wisdom, of the unique imaginative and prescient obvious by way of the 1st seers. seventy three The Mahābhārata epic is a part of that oral culture whose spiritual authority is labeled as smrti, the ‘remembrance’ of the collective knowledge and shared reminiscence of the earlier, ‘the collective event that has been recorded and ratified for posterity by means of the elders of the community’, as Julius Lipner places it. seventy four every so often, the epic refers to itself as on par with the Vedas (Mahābhārata 1. fifty six. 15) accurately as the Vedas remained the emblem of scriptural authority. however the epic’s authority isn't past all feedback. additionally, one may possibly upload, there's a subcategory inside smrti known as itihāsa, ‘sacred narrative’ or ‘sacred (hi)story’, represented in an exemplary means by way of the Mahābhārata since it portrays itself as Vyāsa’s account of the victory of the Pāndavas over their cousins, a (hi)story retold on next events by means of the Mahābhārata itself.